Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine proves 90% effective in first results from Phase 3 clinical trial

 | Post date: 2020/11/14 | 

Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine proves 90% effective in first results from Phase 3 clinical trial

DENMARK-HEALTH-VIRUS-RESEARCH

Image Credits: THIBAULT SAVARY / Getty Images

The COVID-19 vaccine being developed by Pfizer and its partner BioNTech has shown to be effective blocking infection in 90 percent of participants in its Phase 3 clinical trial, the companies announced on Monday. That’s based on data analyzed by an external, independent committee assigned to check the results of the trial, and reflects only early results from the trial, and not the final verified result — but it’s still extremely promising news for progress toward a viable and more broadly available vaccine.

Pfizer and BioNTech’s vaccine candidate is an mRNA-based vaccine, which is a newer technology that many companies pursued for COVID-19 in part because it offers some advantages in the pace of development and potential efficacy. These results from the test were based on an equable case total of 94 confirmed COVID-19 cases among study participants — passing the minimum threshold agreed to by the companies and the FDA of 62 confirmed cases for a proper, scientifically rigorous assessment.

The Phase 3 trial conducted by the companies included 43,358 participants, and Pfizer reports “no serious safety concerns have been observed” thus far in addition to the positive prevention rate. Based on this early data, individuals who receive the vaccine are protected at 28 days after first dose, and the vaccine uses a two-dose process.

There is still additional safety testing and continued studies to conduct, with the companies estimating that two full months of safety data (which is what the FDA requires for Emergency Use Authorization) will be available in the third week of this month. Participants will also be monitored for two full years after they receive their second and final dose in order to test for long-term effects. Pfizer still thinks that it can produce up to 50 million doses of its vaccine by the end of this year, and as many as 1.3 billion doses through 2021.

Full data from this trial still need to undergo peer-review by other researchers and scientific publications, but this is definitely the most promising and clearly positive news yet from the vaccine development front, and could mean that large-scale distribution of a vaccine begins even before the end of 2020 if all goes well.


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International Conference on Cell Science and Molecular Biology December 02-04, 2021 Rome, Italy

 | Post date: 2020/11/14 | 
International Conference on

Cell Science and Molecular Biology

December 02-04, 2021

Rome, Italy

About The Conference

Theme: Encounter with Challenges in this Big Molecular World.

Welcome to all Renowned Personalities!!!

International Conference on Cell Science and Molecular Biology will take place during December 02-04, 2021 in Rome, Italy and aims to be one of the leading conferences in the fields of Cell Science and Molecular Biology. The conference is organized by PAGES Conference and gathers scholars from all over the world to present the latest research outcomes and advances in relevant fields and provides an ideal environment for making new scientific collaborations.
Cell Science-2021 solicits active participation of industry and academic professionals with contributed and invited communications of high scientific level. It will include several inspiring and informative plenary lectures, keynote talks, oral and poster presentations, discussions, exhibitions, workshops and a number of social events aimed at promoting knowledge sharing between the participants and to explore recent advances.This conference will serve an excellent platform to garner experience and share experiences with world-renowned leaders in these fields and offers wonderful opportunities for all the participants to enhance their career and business goals.
The strategic goal of this world-class event is to encourage and motivate delegates to associate with experts in their scientific fields and to exhibit their research outcomes on an international platform while exploring new ways to work on your current research. We hope this event will serve as a platform to share your ideas and offers a meaningful experience with scholars from around the world.
We look forward to welcoming you to Cell Science-2021 in Rome, Italy.
 

Sumbmit Abstract Now Conference Gallery

Sessions

Conference Schedule

Day 1 Schedule

Time

Session

08:00 - 09:00

Registrations

09:00 - 09:15

Opening Ceremony and Introduction

09:15 - 11:00

Keynote Sessions

11:00 - 11:20

Refreshments/Coffee Break

11:20 - 13:00

Oral Presentations 1

13:00 - 14:00

Lunch with Table Discussions

14:00 - 15:40

Oral Presentations 2

15:40 - 16:00

Refreshments/Coffee Break

16:00 - 17:30

Oral Presentations 3

Day 2 Schedule

Time

Session

09:30 - 11:00

Keynote Sessions

11:00 - 11:20

Refreshments/Coffee Break

11:20 - 13:00

Oral Presentations 4

13:00 - 14:00

Lunch with Table Discussions

14:00 - 15:40

Oral Presentations 5

15:40 - 16:00

Refreshments/Coffee Break

16:00 - 17:30

Poster Presentations

Day 3 Schedule

Time

Session

09:30 - 11:00

Keynote Sessions

11:00 - 11:20

Refreshments/Coffee Break

11:20 - 13:00

Oral Presentations 6

13:00 - 14:00

Lunch with Table Discussions

14:00 - 15:40

Oral Presentations 7

15:40 - 16:00

Refreshments/Coffee Break

16:00 - 17:30

Poster Presentations

End of Conference


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Share your COVID experiences with 2 million+ researchers

 | Post date: 2020/09/30 | 
 
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From Brain to Behavior: The Search for Biomarkers

 | Post date: 2020/09/26 | 

From Brain to Behavior: The Search for Biomarkers

Identifying biomarkers of neurological and psychiatric clinical conditions from brain physiology has many challenges.

From Brain to Behavior: The Search for Biomarkers

What is a Biomarker?
The general idea of a biomarker is a biological or physiological observation that indicates or predicts something clinically relevant. The most common biomarkers in use are body temperature and blood pressure which have been around over a hundred years now. Body temperature is most often an indication of an active underlying infection while high blood pressure is more an indication of risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Read Now

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The LCMV Beamformer

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LCMV Beamformers are a type of beamformer algorithm used source estimation from EEG data. In the previous blog post we saw how beamformers can be used for source estimation from EEG...Read More

Three Talks on Individual Differences in the Brain and Behavior

Three Talks on Individual Differences in the Brain and Behavior

There are many dimensions along which individual differences manifest in the brain and behavior from how we see, smell and per...Read More

The Adaptive Traverse: How Knowledge Moves from DNA to Behavior

The Adaptive Traverse: How Knowledge Moves from DNA to Behavior

Here I discuss the concept of an adaptive traverses and how this might explain the link between genes and behavior...Read More

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Happy Peer Review Week from ACS Publications

 | Post date: 2020/09/26 | 
This week marks the 6th annual Peer Review Week (September 21 – 25), an annual global event celebrating the essential role that peer review plays in maintaining scientific quality. 
Peer Review Week 2020 is dedicated to the theme of “Trust in Peer Review”, highlighting how the peer review process works and why this helps to build trust in research. 
Here at ACS Publications we would like to thank all our peer reviewers. We appreciate your hard work and dedication to ensuring the highest scientific standards associated with ACS journals. 
Find out more about peer review resources for researchers from ACS Publications:
Peer review webinar
Join the ACS on Campus team and Pamela Tadross this Friday, 10am ET, for a rebroadcast of the webinar - "Peer Review - Why, How-to, and What Not to Do!". Learn what editors look for when reviewing submissions and tips for responding to reviewer reports.
Peer-Review and You
Pamela Tadross, Associate Editor of Organic Process Research & Development, has written a special Axial post for Peer Review Week 2020 - "Peer-Review and You: How It Works and Why Its Success Depends on Reviewers Like You".
ACS Reviewer Lab
ACS Reviewer Lab is a free online course created to help educate researchers on the fundamentals of scholarly peer review.
Whether you are new to peer review, looking to sharpen your skills, or actively mentoring the next generation of reviewers, ACS Reviewer Lab is a great resource.
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Hologic Showcased Latest Advances at Virtual ECR Congress 2020

 | Post date: 2020/08/22 | 

Hologic Showcased Latest Advances at Virtual ECR Congress 2020

By LabMedica International staff writers
Posted on 20 Aug 2020
Hologic, Inc. (Marlborough, MA, USA) showcased its latest advances and shared its new innovations on its virtual booth at the online ECR 2020 event held on July 15-21.
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Korean Biopharmaceutical Firm Celltrion Launches Both Antigen and Antibody Testing Kits in the US

 | Post date: 2020/08/22 | 
 

Korean Biopharmaceutical Firm Celltrion Launches Both Antigen and Antibody Testing Kits in the US

By LabMedica International staff writers
Posted on 13 Aug 2020
  
SAMPINUTE™ COVID-19 Antigen MIA (left) and DiaTrust™ COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test (Photo courtesy of Celltrion)
SAMPINUTE™ COVID-19 Antigen MIA (left) and DiaTrust™ COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test (Photo courtesy of Celltrion)
Celltrion Group (Incheon, Korea) has launched two rapid COVID-19 testing kits, SAMPINUTE COVID-19 Antigen MIA for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen, and DiaTrust COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test for detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibody in the US.

SAMPINUTE COVID-19 Antigen MIA is an electrochemical immunoassay test for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen from nasopharyngeal swab samples, composed of one time use test cartridges and a portable analyzer. DiaTrust COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test is a one-step in-vitro diagnostic test based on immunochromatographic assay designed for the rapid detection of antibodies of the novel coronavirus in healthcare settings. Both the rapid tests kits have shown a reliable performance and promising clinical trial results. SAMPINUTE COVID-19 Antigen MIA has a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100%, with time to results within 10 minutes. DiaTrust COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test has also shown a reliable performance with 96% positive percent agreement and 98.67% negative percent agreement for IgM, 92% positive percent agreement and 100% negative percent agreement for IgG. The test has a turnaround time of 15 minutes.

“Celltrion has been striving to bring the tests into the US. The need for more accessible, affordable, and most importantly, rapid diagnostic testing will grow, as the daily activities are coming back, and the economy is opening up again,” a Celltrion representative stated. “With the short turnaround time and promising performance of the sensitivity and specificity results, Celltrion is confident that both SAMPINUTE COVID-19 Antigen MIA and DiaTrust COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test will add great value to healthcare providers in screening patients and keeping communities safe.”

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Upcoming Events of the ACSE

 | Post date: 2020/08/18 | 
August 17, 2020
 
Asian Council of Science Editors (The ACSE) offers a variety of events throughout the year to keep you up-to-date and connected with the researcher and scholarly publishing community. Visit our website for more information about our upcoming events. Contact the ACSE by email at acsetheacse.com or call +971-50-925-3308 for questions.

February 13-14, 2021 | Pakistan
Emerging Scientist Season II (ES) 2021. Following the Emerging Scientist 2019, the Asian Council of Science Editors is delighted to announce the Emerging Scientist Season II 2021, in collaboration with the ACE College for Women, National Council for Tibb, Asian Digital Library, Foundation University, Institute of Clinical Psychology, and Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences.  The ES 2021 conference provides an interdisciplinary forum for doctoral and postdoctoral scholars to present their research and participate in constructive debate toward the completion of their projects. The conference will serve as an opportunity for the fruitful exchange of ideas among research specialists and emerging scholars in the field, and also facilitates networking and new partnerships.

August 29-30, 2021 | Dubai
Asian Conference on Science, Technology & Medicine (ACSTM)  is a high-end academic platform for early career to well-established scientists and researchers to share exciting ideas, refresh the current knowledge, strengthen the collaboration and build new networks across the discipline.
 
August 29-30, 2021 | Dubai
Annual Conference of the ACSE is a collegial gathering of editors, reviewers, researchers, librarians & publishers from Asia region to learn the latest innovations, build new connections, discuss important issues of the scholarly publishing community and explore their best possible solutions.
 

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Introduction to testing for COVID-19

 | Post date: 2020/08/9 | 

Introduction to testing for COVID-19

This module will introduce the different types of test for diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It will discuss the optimal timing of these tests in relation to the natural history of the disease, the factors that can impact upon the results of the tests, and the advantages and disadvantages of each type of test.

Learning outcomes

After completing this module you should understand

  • The main types of test for COVID-19 and their advantages and disadvantages
  • When to use each type of test
  • How the natural history of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and sample collection factors can affect the accuracy and interpretation of SARS-CoV-2 tests
  • How the results of tests can help guide individual patient management and population level pandemic control

Contributors

 Anna Jeffery-Smith,  Colin Brown,  Allison Streetly, Maria Zambon

Peer reviewed by

 Margaret Sillis, Tumena Corrah

Last updated

13 Jul 2020

Release date

13 Jul 2020


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Prospective randomized trial of interventions for vincristine-related neuropathic pain

 | Post date: 2020/07/18 | 
Jul 10, 2020

Prospective randomized trial of interventions for vincristine-related neuropathic pain

Doralina L Anghelescu, Jessica Michala Tesney et al.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2020 Jul 2 e28539 [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND To evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin at 20 mg/kg per day in the treatment of vincristine-related neuropathic pain.

PROCEDURE Children aged 1-18 years who developed vincristine-induced neuropathy on a St Jude frontline acute lymphoblastic leukemia trial were prospectively enrolled on a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II trial with two treatment arms: gabapentin plus opioid versus placebo plus opioid. Daily evaluations of morphine dose (mg/kg per day) and pain scores were conducted for up to 21 days; the values of the two arms were compared to assess analgesic efficacy.

RESULTS Of 51 study participants, 49 were eligible for analyses. Twenty-five participants were treated with gabapentin, with a mean (SD) dose of 17.97 (2.76) mg/kg per day (median 18.26, range 6.82-21.37). The mean (SD) opioid doses taken, expressed as morphine equivalent daily (mg/kg per day), were 0.26 (0.43) in the gabapentin group (25 patients, 432 days) and 0.15 (0.22) in the placebo group (24 patients, 411 days; P = .15). Only the risk classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was significantly associated with the daily morphine dosage (P = .0178): patients in the lower risk arm received higher daily morphine dosages. Multivariate analyses revealed a significant difference between the groups' average daily scores for the previous 24 h and'right now.'

CONCLUSION In this population of children with vincristine-related neuropathic pain, opioid consumption and pain scores were higher in the gabapentin group than in the placebo group. Future randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies should test gabapentin given longer or at a higher dose.

SOURCE : Pediatric Blood & Cancer

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COVID-19 resources: serological tests, face masks and benefits of physical activity

 | Post date: 2020/07/11 | 
Covid-19 resource hub
Find out what your peers are currently reading. Most popular content from BMJ Journals: 
  BMJ Global Health: Reduction of secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households by face mask use, disinfection and social distancing: a cohort study in Beijing, China 
  Archives of Disease in Childhood: Children are not COVID-19 super spreaders: time to go back to school 
  BMJ Open: A cluster randomised trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers
  Gut: Famotidine use and quantitative symptom tracking for COVID-19 in non-hospitalised patients: a case series
 
 
BMJ Learning
30 minute online course - The health benefits of physical activity: depression, anxiety, sleep, and dementia
In these challenging times we must remain aware of the longer term effects on mental wellbeing, particularly as a result of staying at home for a prolonged period of time. Featuring multimedia video, this course covers the importance and effectiveness of physical exercise as both a preventer and combatant to depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, and dementia, plus how to recommend it to patients. Sign in or register for a free account to start.
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The BMJ
Diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for COVID-19: systematic review and meta-analysis
A recently-published research article in The BMJ shows that available evidence does not support the continued use of existing point-of-care serological tests for COVID-19.
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FDA approves generic albuterol inhaler to mitigate shortages during pandemic

 | Post date: 2020/07/8 | 
On April 8, FDA, recognizing the increased demand for albuterol products during the novel coronavirus pandemic, approved the first generic albuterol inhaler. The albuterol sulfate metered-dose inhaler, 90 mcg/inhalation (Cipla Ltd) is the first AB-rated generic therapeutic equivalent version of Merck’s Proventil HFA and the first generic metered-dose inhaler to be approved in almost 2 decades. The generic inhaler is used to treat or prevent bronchospasm in patients ages 4 years and older who have reversible obstructive airway disease and to prevent exercise-induced bronchospasm in this age group.

Addressing shortages

According to the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), certain areas of the country are experiencing shortages of albuterol inhalers because of their increased use in hospitals for patients with COVID-19. These shortages could have implications for the more than 26 million people in the United States who have asthma, of which 7 million are children.
Unlabelled Image
“FDA recognizes the increased demand for albuterol products during the novel coronavirus pandemic,” said FDA Commissioner Stephen M. Hahn, MD. “We remain deeply committed to facilitating access to medical products to help address critical needs of the American public.”
According to allergist Michael Blaiss, MD, ACAAI executive medical director, the organization learned of possible shortages about a month ago. “With the introduction of this inhaler, we have a generic product to add to the supply,” Blaiss said in a statement to patients on ACAAI’s website. “While shortages may not be occurring in every part of the country, we want patients to know they may now have additional options if they are having an issue getting their medicine.”
ACAAI has developed recommendations for patients with asthma who are having difficulties accessing inhalers (see sidebar).

Dosage and administration

The recommended dosage for adults and children ages 4 years and older is two inhalations repeated every 4 to 6 hours. More frequent administration or a larger number of inhalations is not recommended. In some patients, one inhalation every 4 hours may be sufficient.
Each actuation delivers 108 mcg of albuterol sulfate (equivalent to 90 mcg of albuterol base) from the mouthpiece.
Patients should prime the inhaler before using for the first time and in cases where the inhaler has not been used for more than 2 weeks by releasing four test sprays into the air, away from the face.

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What do we know for sure about hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19? Not much

 | Post date: 2020/07/8 | 
For a while there, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) became the new toilet paper: Everyone thought they needed it to stay safe during COVID-19, and resulting demand placed stress on supply.
HCQ had support from high places. President Trump called it “a game changer” at a White House press briefing on March 19. “What do you have to lose? Take it. I really think they should take it,” he said at another briefing on April 4. But in late April, FDA cautioned against its use for COVID-19 outside of a hospital setting. By June 15, FDA had put the kibosh on the whole thing—it revoked the drug’s emergency use authorization (EUA).
Unlabelled Image
How did we get here?

Promise

Researchers had been exploring the use of antimalarials like HCQ and chloroquine (CQ) against viral infections for decades, so the recommendation wasn’t totally implausible. CQ had shown promise against the 2002 outbreak of sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), another coronavirus, by inhibiting viral replication.
In addition, some hypothesized that CQ or HCQ could inhibit immune response that could lead to lung and other organ damage in patients with COVID-19.
Trump’s initial endorsements came from two sources. A letter in BioScience Trends summarized the experience of a Chinese medical group, reporting that “results from more than 100 patients have demonstrated that chloroquine phosphate is superior to the control treatment in inhibiting the exacerbation of pneumonia, improving lung imaging findings, promoting a virus negative conversion, and shortening the disease course.” The letter, however, included no additional detail about study design, patient selection criteria, outcomes, or safety. Read the letter at https://apha.us/BioSciTrends.
An International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents study out of France included more detail but still had significant limitations. Read that study at https://apha.us/HCQFrance.
The French study had a very small sample size—42 patients were enrolled, of whom 16 were controls. Still, it found that patients who were positive for COVID-19 and were treated with HCQ, sometimes in combination with azithromycin depending on a patient’s clinical presentation, had a significantly reduced viral load compared with controls.
HCQ hype was born. Though evidence supporting their effectiveness was scant, FDA approved HCQ and CQ for COVID-19 treatment by EUA on March 28. EUA was granted based on SARS-CoV-2’s potential to cause life-threatening disease; a reasonable belief that HCQ/CQ could effectively treat COVID-19 based on the limited in vitro and anecdotal clinical data in case series, and that the drugs’ known and potential benefits outweighed their known and potential risks; and the lack of an adequate, approved, and available alternative treatment.
Literature about HCQ and COVID-19 began to proliferate, but most consisted entirely of speculation (https://apha.us/Speculation), hypothesis (https://apha.us/Hypothesis), calls for further study (https://apha.us/FurtherStudy), or trial design proposals (https://apha.us/Proposal).

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Webinars for the Week of July 6th

 | Post date: 2020/07/8 | 
Webinars for the Week of July 6th
Presenters:
Ian Crozier, MD
Medical Affairs Scientist II, Clinical Monitoring Research Program
Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.,
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Integrated Research Facility


Swati Shah, PhD
Staff Scientist, Hammoud Lab,
Center for infectious diseases imaging,
Clinical center, NIH
Molecular imaging in BSL-4 setting is very challenging. It can be extremely valuable, however, in elucidating the pathophysiology of the infectious process and improving our understanding of disease progression and long-term sequelae. Examples of molecular imaging applications in SARS-CoV-2 and Ebola virus infection will be discussed, demonstrating the potential of imaging for better characterization of disease pathophysiology in high consequence viral infections.
Sponsored by:
Presenter:
Olivia Claire Sehl, BS
Graduate Student
Robarts Research Institute 
Moderator:
Kimberly Brewer, PhD
Assistant Professor
Dalhousie University

July 10, 2020 | 11:00 AM ET
This talk will focus on three imaging modalities used for in vivo cell tracking: iron-based MRI, fluorine-19 MRI, and magnetic particle imaging (MPI). The advantages and limitations of each modality will be discussed. We will explore pre-clinical MRI and MPI imaging of therapeutic cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, T cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We will also show how these imaging techniques are used to visualize and quantify transplant- and tumor-associated inflammation.
Sponsored by:
Join us online for
WMIC Virtual 2020
Starting October 7th
Late-Breaking Deadline August 5
© 2020 World Molecular Imaging Society. All Rights Reserved.

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COVID-19: Bacteriophage Could Decrease Mortality

 | Post date: 2020/06/29 | 

New Rochelle, NY, June 24, 2020—Bacteriophage can reduce bacterial growth in the lungs, limiting fluid build-up. This could decrease the mortality of patients affected by COVID-19, according to the peer-reviewed journal PHAGE: Therapy, Applications, and Research. Click here to read the article.

“The bacterial growth rate could potentially be reduced by the aerosol application of natural bacteriophages. These prey on the main species of bacteria known to cause respiratory failure,” says Marcin Wojewodzic, PhD, University of Birmingham (U.K.).

Decreasing bacterial growth would also give the body more time to produce protective antibodies against the disease-causing coronavirus.

“Used correctly, phages have an advantage here of being able to very specifically target the bacteria that cause secondary infections,” said Martha Clokie, PhD, Editor-in-Chief of PHAGE and Professor of Microbiology, University of Leicester (U.K.). “They would remove the problematic bacterium but leave an otherwise fragile microbiome intact.”


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Animal Models of COVID-19

 | Post date: 2020/06/28 | 
Presenter:
Stanley Perlman, MD, PhD
Professor of Microbiology and Immunology
Professor of Pediatrics, Mark Stinski Chair in Virology
University of Iowa
Animal models for COVID-2 will be discussed, with special emphasis on murine models. Mice are naturally resistant to infection with SARS-CoV-2, but there are various approaches that render them sensitive, resulting in models for mild to severe pulmonary disease. The pros and cons of these experimental infections will be discussed.
Sponsored by:
Upcoming IOI Live Webinars
Alireza Radmanesh, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology
Director, Pediatric Neuroradiology
NYU Grossman School of Medicine
Sponsored by:
July 2, 2020
11 AM ET
Ian Crozier, MD
Medical Affairs Scientist II, Clinical Monitoring Research Program
Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.,
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Integrated Research Facility

Swati Shah, PhD
Staff Scientist, Hammoud Lab,
Center for infectious diseases imaging,
Clinical center, NIH
Sponsored by:
July 7, 2020
11 AM ET
Join us online for
WMIC Virtual 2020
October 7-10
Late-Breaking Deadline July 15t

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Social isolation can lead to depression in children long after current lockdown

 | Post date: 2020/06/28 | 

Children and adolescents are likely to experience high rates of depression and anxiety long after current lockdown and social isolation ends and clinical services need to be prepared for a future spike in demand, according to the authors of a new rapid review into the long-term mental health effects of lockdown.

The research, which draws on over 60 pre-existing, peer-reviewed studies into topics spanning isolation, loneliness and mental health for young people aged 4 – 21, is published today (Monday 1 June 2020) in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

According to the review, young people who are lonely might be as much as three times more likely to develop depression in the future, and that the impact of loneliness on mental health could last for at least 9 years.

The studies highlight an association between loneliness and an increased risk of mental health problems for young people. There is also evidence that duration of loneliness may be more important than the intensity of loneliness in increasing the risk of future depression among young people.

This, say the authors, should act as a warning to policymakers of the expected rise in demand for mental health services from young people and young adults in the years to come – both here in the UK and around the world.


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Is COVID-19 Risk Linked to Blood Type?

One of the things that has really bothered me about COVID-19 is the dramatic variability in presentation, from being asymptomatic to having sniffles, complete respiratory failure requiring ECMO, and, of course, death. I've seen all of these firsthand at this point. And sure, we know that there are risk factors for bad outcomes, such as older age and comorbidities. But ask any of us who have cared for these patients and we'll tell you that there is clearly other stuff going on. I've seen a 35-year-old man with no comorbidities fighting for his life on ECMO.

It seems logical that genetics may play a role here, but those studies are just in the early phases. Nevertheless, some tantalizing clues are emerging—and some from really unlikely places.

Okay. A couple of months ago, my family did tests to figure out our blood type. We did this for no scientific or medical reason; we were bored, stuck at home, wanted some fun science-y stuff to do with the kids, and found some cheap kits on Amazon.

I am type O. My wife, type A.

And that was that. Until I started seeing that blood type may be associated with the risk for coronavirus infection and death from COVID-19.

This supposition immediately raised red flags for me. Correlating blood type with various outcomes has long straddled the border between regular science and pseudoscience—and often had a racially tinged flavor. I am pretty sure blood type does not correlate with various personality traits, for example. So why would blood type dictate susceptibility to a respiratory virus?

But, since I am often wrong and love to find out when I'm wrong, I looked into it. And I honestly think there may be something here.

Caveats: Data are really limited, and studies are sort of trickling out in preprint form and in various esoteric journals. But I'll point out a couple that hold water for me.

The first, a preprint out of China, looked at just over 2000 COVID-positive individuals and reported that there was a higher infection rate in people with type A blood.

What you see here is that there was a higher-than-expected rate of individuals with blood group A diagnosed with COVID-19 than in the general population.


 

Conversely, fewer-than-expected individuals with blood group O appeared in the pool of those infected. Similar results were seen when the analysis was restricted to the 206 individuals who died from COVID-19. Again, blood group A was overrepresented.


Medscape © 2020 WebMD, LLC

Any views expressed above are the author's own and do not necessarily reflect the views of WebMD or Medscape.

Cite this: Is COVID-19 Risk Linked to Blood Type? - Medscape - Jun 16, 2020.


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